Não tem certeza do que as faculdades de pós-graduação no exterior procuram em uma declaração de propósito? Nesse caso, analisar alguns exemplos bem-sucedidos pode ajudar! Pensando nisso, trouxemos aqui 3 modelos de statement of purpose, para que você possa entender os elementos necessários e se inspirar para escrever o seu! Vamos lá?
O que é um statement of purpose?
Um statement of purpose (também chamado de letter of intent ou research statement) apresenta seus interesses e experiência ao comitê de admissão de uma faculdade. Para programas com foco em pesquisa, como a maioria dos PhDs e muitos mestrados, sua declaração de propósito vai se concentrar principalmente em seus planos e experiências de pesquisa anteriores.
Para programas de pós-graduação com foco mais profissional, sua declaração de propósito vai discutir principalmente como o seu interesse por este programa se relaciona com suas experiências anteriores e como você usará as habilidades do programa em sua carreira futura.
Uma declaração de propósito de pós-graduação também é onde você explica ao comitê de admissão por que você se encaixa no programa e o que eles têm a te oferecer.
3 modelos de statement of purpose
Exemplo 1: statement of purpose para um PhD em Economia:
I am applying to Harvard’s doctoral program in economics in pursuit of a career in academic research. I entered economics research because I enjoy modeling real-world situations with math. This interest was confirmed by my research work, which included projects on mortgages, optimal surveys, and consumer savings. These research experiences also led me to discover that I enjoy theory work, especially theory fields that see wide use in empirical research, fields like game theory and mechanism design. My interest in game theory and behavioral economics recently led me to explore the subfield of learning in games, in which I have a few research ideas.
I entered economics research because I enjoy the process of modeling social situations, the process of looking at an economic phenomenon, thinking about the key empirical factors, and making the correct variable and structural choices to generate a tractable model that explains the situation. For example, one project I worked on for Professor John Jonson involved finding a formula that gave the best time to refinance mortgages. In this project, I enjoyed contemplating the various tradeoffs between simplicity and richness that went into the model design. Should we model interest rates as mean reverting, or is a simple random walk sufficiently approximate? Should we be precise and model mortgage amortization time, or should we avoid an extra state variable and instead just use a time-stationary hazard rate? These tradeoffs were interesting to think about, and existed in all projects: for example, my work on optimal surveys required careful consideration of response interaction complexity. Overall, my research work confirmed my interest in economic model building.
In doing research work, I also began to discover a new interest in economic theory, especially in theory work that is heavily used by empirical economics. For the mortgage-refinancing project, my major personal contribution was finding a closed-form solution for the refinancing formula. I discovered that I enjoy carefully thinking about the highly mathematical parts of the problem, like the existence conditions for the formula’s solutions or the analytic details of the bellman equations. Similarly, I enjoyed the process of finding mathematical insights in my optimal survey project. One insight involved using a multidimensional envelope theorem; another insight involved pushing a standard delta-method technique in statistics to infinite cases. In both project, I was especially satisfied to know that these theoretical results advanced practical goals in empirical research. For mortgage research, a closed-form solution significantly advances the paper’s goal of providing a simple formula homeowners can use. For optimal survey research, the math insights led to a method of construction of the best survey possible. The method was put to actual use for a separate journal article on empirical intertemporal discount rates. Through all these projects, I both enjoyed generating mathematical insights and knowing that these theoretical advances have real empirical benefits.
My revealed interest in economic theory led me towards theoretical fields with wide applications, fields like game theory and mechanism design where advances in theory increase the power and scope of all of economics. For example, in game theory, sequential equilibrium in extensive form games allows richer dynamic models. In mechanism design, the revelation principle simplifies mechanism calculations. Implementation theory allows economists to design novel institutions to meet an objective that was previously untenable. The applicability of such theory work appeals greatly to me.
In addition to game theory and mechanism design, behavioural economics also interests me because of my recent exposure to the field in research assistance work. Behavioral economics is appealing because it questions the basic assumptions of rationality in an attempt to generate more accurate predictions about human behavior. However, work in behavioural economics often lacks unity. Instead of a central model that explains a wide set of phenomena, oftentimes, there are numerous models that each explain a specific phenomenon without the ability to generalize further. For example, in the subfield of learning in games, reinforcement models like Roth and Erev (1995) explain trends in learning, but predicts convergence much too slowly in coordination games (Boylan and El-Gamal 1992). In contrast, belief learning models like Fudenberg and Levine (1998) allow hypothetical reinforcement and hence faster learning, but performs slightly worse on zero-sum games (Battalio, Samuelson, and Van Huyck 1997; Mookerjee and Sopher 1997). Camerer (1999) synthesizes these two models in an Experience Weighted Attraction (EWA) model, but EWA has a high number of parameters that vary widely for different games, and still exhibits poor performance in zero-sum games. These models predict zero sum games poorly because they fail to consider a fraction of players who overpredict reinforcement learning in opponents. The missing component then is having players who are heterogeneous in level of sophistication, a structure in the style of Nagel (1995) or Stahl and Wilson (1995). However, instead of nth order reasoning, the correct concept seems to be nth order sophistication, an idea that Camerer (2007) broaches with the Cognitive Hierarchy (CH) model. CH is a static model however and needs to be extended to a dynamic setting, perhaps by allowing player sophistication to rise over time, or by basing the actions of level zero player on historic outcomes as in Stahl (1996). This model would explain quick convergence in median action games – sophisticates jump to the median very rapidly. This model also explains reinforcement overprediction in zero-sum games: level-one players number higher than level-zero players. If such a theory is confirmed through experiments, it would advance the goal of having more general models for behavioral economics.
In addition to giving me ideas, my past work has also given me the skills needed for graduate school. To build a technical toolbox, I have taken theoretical math, graduate statistics, and graduate economics classes, culminating in earning an A on the graduate micro generals last year. To experience working with real research, I have done research in behavioral economics and consumer finance with John Jonson and in auction theory work Barbara Babson. I have been exposed to many parts of the research process: I have solved mathematical models in mortgage refinancing work; I have advanced theoretical proofs in my optimal survey research; and I have analyzed large data sets including US Census for behavioral research. These experiences have given me skills for graduate work and have confirmed that research work is something I enjoy.
Overall, I am fascinated with economics and very much enjoy research. I especially enjoy building models and doing theory work with empirical impact. I am interested game theory, mechanism design, and behavioral economics, and would like to explore these and other economic fields in graduate school. My fascination with research will provide me with the necessary ambition to succeed in Harvard’s program, while my extensive coursework and field preparation will provide me with the necessary skills to succeed in Harvard’s program.
Battalio, R., L. Samuelson, and J. Van Huyck, ‘‘Risk Dominance, Payoff Dominance and Probabilistic Choice Learning,’’ Working Paper, Department of Economics, Texas A&M University (1997).
Boylan, R. T., and M. A. El-Gamal, ‘‘Fictitious Play: A Statistical Study of Multiple Economic Experiments,’’ Games and Economic Behavior, 5 (1992), 205-222.
Camerer, C.F., and T.-H. Ho, “Experience-weighted attraction learning in normal-form games,” Econometrica, 67 (1999), 827–874.
Camerer, C. F., T. H. Ho and J. K. Chong, "A cognitive hierarchy model of games." Quarterly Journal of Economics 119-3 (2004), 861-898.
Fudenberg, D., and D. K. Levine, ‘‘Consistency and Cautious Fictitious Play,’’ Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, 19 (1995), 1065-1090.
Mookerjee, D., and B. Sopher, ‘‘Learning and Decision Costs in Experimental Constantsum Games,’’ Games and Economic Behavior, 19 (1997), 97-132
Nagel, Rosemarie, “Unraveling in Guessing Games: An Experimental Study,” American Economic Review, LXXXV (1995), 1313–1326.
Stahl, Dale O., and Paul Wilson, “On Players’ Models of Other Players: Theory and Experimental Evidence,” Games and Economic Behavior, X (1995), 213–254.
Stahl, Dale O., ‘‘Boundedly Rational Rule Learning in a Guessing Game,’’ Games and Economic Behavior, 16 (1996), 303-330.
Roth, Alvin and Ido Erev, ‘‘Learning in Extensive-Form Games: Experimental Data and Simple Dynamic Models in the Intermediate Term,’’ Games and Economic Behavior, 8 (1995), 164-212.
Exemplo 2: statement of purpose para um mestrado em Música
Prompt: What role has music played in your life to date? How have your past experiences in music influenced your future goals and plans?
I first began composing after learning the basics of music theory from a middle school Music Technology class. From 2002 to 2006, I studied music theory and composition at Excellus Music School with Dr. Randy Norton. I continued my compositional studies at Latin College, under Professor Martina Andrews for 20th century compositional techniques and electronic music, and under Professor Anna Pratt for my senior honors thesis. I also took courses in music theory, music history, ethnomusicology, medieval cantors, contemporary opera, “Uptown”/atonal music, and the intersection of neuroscience, psychology, and music. Studying abroad at the University of Edinburgh my junior year, I learned more music theory, including fugal theory and composition, and orchestration techniques. For my senior honors thesis, “Little Notes,” I composed a thirteen-movement song cycle using a transposable mode I constructed around a fully diminished seventh and an augmented triad. Scored for two sopranos, chamber ensemble, and electronics, “Little Notes” was performed and recorded in April of 2010, and I subsequently defended it successfully to receive Honors in the Music major.
In addition to my academic music experiences, I also have a substantial background of performance and music-related employment. As an undergraduate at Latin College, I studied viola with Amelia Majors and Anita Smith. I also studied the viola da gamba with renowned gambist Carly Jefferson, and taught myself the rudiments of the theremin for inclusion in my senior thesis recital. I performed in several different ensembles, holding officer positions in the Latin College Orchestra (Treasurer 2009-2010) and the Chamber Music Society (Librarian 2007-2009, CoPresident 2009-2010). My music employment experiences include working as a Music Assistant at the Excellus Summer Arts Program from 2006-2008, and working at the Composers Conference and Chamber Music Center the summers of 2007-2010. While I may have attended a liberal arts college, rather than a conservatory, for my undergraduate degree, music has still been a tremendously important part of my life to date.
The primary objective I hope to achieve in the course of obtaining a MM in Composition from Longy School of Music is the expansion of my compositional knowledge and abilities. I want to learn about instruments I do not play in such depth that I will feel comfortable writing absolutely anything and everything for them. I also plan to explore and develop my interest in music for film and dance, and in music as one part of a collaborative work of art. As a student at Longy, I would welcome the opportunity to study with Jeremy Van Buskirk to finesse and enhance my skills with computer and electroacoustic music.
Another goal that is important to me as I pursue graduate studies is to be involved in the performance of new music, both works by other composers and my own compositions. While studying abroad at the University of Edinburgh, I participated in the Edinburgh University Composers’ Orchestra, a musical group devoted to playing and performing works by living composers, especially those by fellow students. As a senior at Latin College, I played viola in a friend’s senior thesis performance. Both of these experiences were more fulfilling for me than any other concerts I played in during that time period, because not only did I have the opportunity to play music I had never played before, but I saw how rewarding it was for the composer to hear her (or his) music performed and recorded. When I began my own senior thesis, I knew that I would have to manage the compositional demands of a thirteen-movement song cycle, written for whatever combination of instruments I was able to procure. The reality, however, of getting that piece to the concert, from recruiting students interested enough in the project to give up valuable midterms study time to organizing rehearsals and dealing with last-minute performer drop-outs and changes, was both more challenging and more invigorating than I had anticipated. The growth I sustained as a composer and musician from that experience alone has made me eager for more opportunities to get my music performed. Because of Longy’s reputation for excellence in performance and all aspects of music, I hope to be able to find fellow students who would be interested in performing my compositions, and I hope to have the opportunity, in turn, to play the compositions of my fellow students.
One other goal I hope to realize through an MM in Composition at Longy connects both my passion for music and my liberal arts background: the exploration of the ways I can use my extra-musical knowledge in my compositions. The final music seminar I took at Latin College delved into the intricacies of the relationship between performer and material. My background in social psychology, as well as my interest in the work of John Cage and aleatoric compositional techniques, has led me further down this path: What are the relationships between performer, audience, and material? How does the experience of listening change in different situations, and what, if anything, can the composer do to control that experience?
During my time at graduate school, I plan to apply for any music assistantship job opportunities that may arise. In an ideal world, after obtaining my MM in composition, I would compose and/or orchestrate music for film and freelance for a few years before pursuing any further degrees; I do also embrace the possibility, however, that, when I graduate in 2014, the job market realities may be such that I instead decide to return to school for further graduate studies in Music. Regardless of what careers I end up exploring, I know that I want composition to be a part of what I do. In order for that to happen, I need to develop further my abilities as a composer and musician, and increase my experiences of having my own music performed. I believe that my best opportunity for achieving these goals is through the MM in Composition at Longy School of Music.
Exemplo 3: statement of purpose para um mestrado em História do Livro
Prompt 1: Please give a short statement that describes your academic interests, purpose, objectives and motivation in undertaking this postgraduate study. (max 3500 chars – approx. 500 words).
Since I was a child, my favorite thing has always been a book. Not just for the stories and information they contain, although that is a large part of it. Mostly, I have been fascinated by the concept of book as object—a tangible item whose purpose is to relate intangible ideas and images. Bookbindings and jackets, different editions, the marginalia in a used book—all of these things become part of the individual book and its significance, and are worth study and consideration. Books and their equivalent forms—perfect bound, scrolled, stone tablets, papyrus—have long been an essential part of material culture and are also one of our most significant sources of information about the human historical past. Through both the literal object of the book, the words contained thereon, and its relationship to other books—forms of context, text and intertext—we are able to learn and hopefully manage layers of information with which we would otherwise have no familiarity.
Furthermore, blogs, webcomics, digital archives, e-readers, and even social media sites like tumblr and Facebook have revolutionized the concept of the book by changing how we share and transmit ideas and information, just as the Gutenberg printing press revolutionized the book all those years ago in the fifteenth century. Once again there has been an explosion both in who can send out information and who can receive it.
I am deeply interested in the preservation of the physical book, as I think it is an important part of human history (not to mention a satisfying sensory experience for the reader). However I am also very concerned with the digitization and organization of information for the modern world such that the book, in all of its forms, stays relevant and easy to access and use. Collections of books, archives, and information as stored in the world’s servers, libraries and museums are essential resources that need to be properly organized and administered to be fully taken advantage of by their audiences. My purpose in applying to the University of Edinburgh’s Material Culture and History of the Book is to gain the skills necessary to keep all forms of the book relevant and functional in an age when information can move more radically than ever before.
Additionally, I intend on pursuing a PhD in Library and Information Sciences upon completion of my master’s and I feel that this program while make me uniquely suited to approach library science from a highly academic and interdisciplinary perspective.
Prompt 2: Relevant Knowledge/Training/Skills
As a folklore and mythology student, I have gained a robust understanding of material culture and how it relates to culture as a whole. I have also learned about the transmission of ideas, information, stories and pieces of lore among and between populations, which is an important component of book history. Folklore is also deeply concerned with questions of the literary vs. oral lore and the tendency for text to “canonize” folklore, and yet text can also question or invert canonized versions; along with this my studies in my focus field of religion and storytelling have been deeply concerned with intertextuality. One of my courses was specifically concerned with the Heian-period Japanese novel The Tale of Genji and questions of translation and representation in post-Heian picture scrolls and also modern translations and manga. In addition to broader cultural questions concerned with gender and spirituality both in historical Japan and now, we considered the relationships between different Genji texts and images.
I also have work experience that lends itself to the study of the book. After my freshman year of college I interned at the Chicago History Museum. Though I was in the visitor services department I was exposed to the preservation and archival departments of the museum and worked closely with the education department, which sparked my interest in archival collections and how museums present collection information to the public. After my sophomore year of college and into my junior year, I worked at Harvard’s rare books library, Houghton. At Houghton I prepared curated collections for archival storage. These collections were mostly comprised of the personal papers of noteworthy individuals, categorized into alphabetical folders. This experience made me very process-oriented and helped me to understand how collections come together on a holistic basis.
Finally, in my current capacity as an education mentor in Allston, a suburb of Boston, I have learned the value of book history and material culture from an educational perspective. As a mentor who designs curriculum for individual students and small groups, I have learned to highly value clearly organized and useful educational resources such as websites, iPad apps, and books as tools for learning. By managing and organizing collections in a way that makes sense we are making information accessible to those who need it.
Universidade do Intercâmbio
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